The authorized or unauthorized access to exploit or penetrate into a computer system or network is known as Hacking. Hacker is the ancient term generally used carpenters or woodcutter. After several years term, “Hacker” is used for telephone or digital computer or network modifier or exploiter. One more term we generally knew in the field of Hacking or Computers i.e. Crackers and Penetration Testers. Cracker term is used for those who crack into a system, network, or password and exploit them in an illegal way. Penetration Testers are those who test websites, web applications, and network or computer system for any loophole or vulnerabilities, which is used by Bad Guys to exploit or penetrate.

TYPES OF HACKERS
  • Ethical Hacker / White Hat Hacker: Those hackers who exploit into a computer system or network in a legal way. They are also known as Ethical Hackers. As a term, Ethical Hacker shows that the hackers work works hacks with ethics and permission. 
  • Gray Hat Hacker / Luiz: Those hackers who exploit into computers or networks in a legal or illegal way. They are the person who hacks for entertainment or for fun. Grey Hat Hackers are also known as Luiz’s. 
  • Black Hat Hacker: Those hackers we generally know about. These hackers are Bad Guys or Crackers they only hack computers or networks for their benefits or bad intention. They always hack by unauthorized way or illegal way. 
  • Suicide Hacker: Suicide hackers are those people or those hackers who hack anyone for their fame or for their name or for their publicity. 
  • Script Kiddies: Those hackers who hack under government agencies or organizations. 
PHASES OF HACKING
  • Information Gathering/ Foot-Printing: Information Gathering is the phase where the attacker gathers information about a target using active or passive means. The tools that are widely used in this process are NMAP, Hping, Maltego, and Google Dorks. Famous way to gather information is Social Engineering. This phase is the most time-consuming. 
  • Scanning: In this phase attackers or hackers scan the victim for any loophole or vulnerabilities for exploitation. The tools used in this process are Nessus, Nexpose, and NMAP. 
  • Gaining Access: In this phase attackers or hackers exploit into that loophole or vulnerability which they found in the scanning phase. Now they enter into that system or network. The primary tool that is used in this process is Metasploit. 
  • Maintaining Access: In this phase attackers or hackers create a backdoor which makes them easier to exploit again into that system or network if accidentally the lost the connection then they easily gain access. Metasploit is the preferred tool in this process. 
  • Clearing Tracks: This is the last phase of hacking in which hacker or attackers clean their backtrace to information they leave. 
One Optional Phase Which Is Only Used By Ethical Hackers or Penetration Testers 
  • Recommendation and Patching: In this phase, EH or Penetration Testers generate a report about loopholes or vulnerabilities, which they use to exploit into that victim, and they fix that vulnerability.